Alberts B, et al., Essential Cell Biology, (5th edn, W. W. Norton & Co. 2019).

Bekoff, M, The Emotional Lives of Animals (1st edn, New World Library 2007).

Benson G J, and B E Rollin, eds, The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions (1st edn, Blackwell Publishing, 2004).

Bhat, Z F, et al., ‘Chapter 73 – Cultured meat – a humane meat production system’ in R Lanza, R Langer, J P Vacanti, and A Atala, eds, Principles of Tissue Engineering (5th edn, Academic Press 2020).

Donaldson, B, and C Carter, eds, The Future of Meat without Animals (1st edn, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016).

Drexler, Madeline, Secret Agents: The Menace of Emerging Infections (1st edn, Joseph Henry Press 2002).

Eisnitz, G A, Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment inside the U.S. Meat Industry (1st edn, Prometheus Books, 2006).

Francione, G L, and Charlton A, Eat Like You Care: An Examination of the Morality of Eating Animals (1st edn, Exempla Press 2013).

Freston, K, and B Friedrich, Clean Protein: The Revolution that will Reshape Your Body, Boost Your Energy – and Save Our Planet (1st edn, Hachette 2018).

Harari, Y N, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (1st edn, Harper, 2015).

Harari, Y N, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (1st edn, Harvill Secker, 2016).

Khan, A, An Introduction to Cellular Agriculture (e-book, 1st edn, CellAgri, 2019).

Kleeman, J, Sex Robots & Vegan Meat: Adventures at the Frontier of Birth, Food, Sex & Death (1st edn, Picador 2020).

Pollan, M, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (1st edn, Penguin 2006).

Post, M J, and J-F Hocquette, ‘New Sources of Animal Proteins: Cultured Meat’ in P P Purslow, ed., New Aspects of Meat Quality: From Genes to Ethics (1st edn, Woodhead Publishing 2017).

Purdy C, Billion Dollar Burger: Inside Big Tech’s Race for the Future of Food (1st edn, Little, Brown Book Group 2020).

Reese J, The End of Animal Farming: How Scientists, Entrepreneurs, and Activists Are Building an Animal-Free Food System (1st edn, Beacon Press 2018).

Rogers, L J, Minds of Their Own: Thinking and Awareness in Animals (1st edn, Westview Press 1997).

Safran Foer J, We Are the Weather: Saving the Planet Begins at Breakfast (1st edn, Penguin 2019).

Safran Foer, J, Eating Animals: Should We Stop? (2nd edn, Penguin 2018).

Shapiro, P, Clean Meat: How Growing Meat without Animals Will Revolutionize Dinner and the World (1st edn, Gallery Books, 2018).

Stull, D D, and M J Broadway, Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry Industry in North America (2nd edn, Wadsworth Publishing 2012).

Ward, O, A Oven, and R Bethencourt, The Clean Pet Food Revolution: How Better Pet Food Will Change the World (1st edn, Lantern Books 2020).

Wurgaft, B A, Meat Planet: Artificial Flesh and the Future of Food (1st edn, University of California Press 2019).

Journal Articles
Alexander, P, et al., ‘Could consumption of insects, cultured meat or imitation meat reduce global agricultural land use?’ (2017) 15 Global Food Security 22.

Alvaro, C, ‘Lab-Grown Meat and Veganism: A Virtue-Oriented Perspective’ (2019) 32 Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 127.

Ashley, P J, ‘Fish welfare: Current issues in aquaculture’ (2007) 104:3-4 Applied Animal Behaviour Science 199.

Bekker, G A, et al., ‘Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat’ (2017) 108 Appetite 245.

Benjaminson, M A, et al., ‘In vitro edible muscle protein production system (mpps): stage 1, fish’ (2002) 51:12 Acta Astronautica 879.

Bianco, P, et al., ‘Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Revisiting History, Concepts, and Assays’ (2008) 2:4 Cell Stem Cell 313.

Boyd, W, ‘Making Meat: Science, Technology, and American Poultry Production’ (2001) 42:4 Technology and Culture 631.

Bryant, C J, and J C Barnett, ‘What’s in a name? Consumer perception of in vitro meat under different names’ (2019) 137 Appetite 104.

Bryant, C J, ‘Culture, meat, and cultured (2020) 98:8 Journal of Animal Science e1.

Bryant, C J, et al., ‘Strategies for overcoming aversion to unnaturalness: The case of clean meat’ (2019) 154 Meat Science 37.

Choudhury, D, et al., ‘The Business of Cultured Meat’ (2020) 38:6 Trends in Biotechnology 573.

Choudhury, D, et al., ‘Commercialization of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives’ (2020) Trends in Plant Science e1.

Chriki, S, and J-F Hocquette, ‘The Myth of Cultured Meat: A Review’ (2020) 7:7 Frontiers in Nutrition e1.

Dekkers, B L, et al., ‘Structuring processes for meat analogues’ (2018) 81 Trends in Food Science & Technology 25.

Despommier, D, ‘Vertical farms, building a viable indoor farming model for cities’ (2019) Special Issue 20 Field Actions Science Reports 68.

Espinosa, R, et al., ‘Infectious Diseases and Meat Production’ (2020) 76 Environmental and Resource Economics 1019.

Faustman, C, et al., ‘Cell-based meat: the need to assess holistically’ (2020) 98:8 Journal of Animal Science e1.

Fernandes, A M, et al., ‘Conceptual evolution and scientific approaches about synthetic meat’ (2019) 57 Journal of Food Science & Technology 1991.

Galanakis, C M, ‘The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Crisis’ (2020) 9:4 Foods 523.

Gaydhane, M K, et al., ‘Cultured meat: state of the art and future’ (2018) 3:1 Biomanufacturing Reviews e1.

Fish, K D, et al., ‘Prospects and challenges for cell-cultured fat as a novel food ingredient’ (2020) 98 Trends in Food Science & Technology 53.

Gasteratos, K, ‘90 Reasons to Consider Cellular Agriculture’ (2019) student paper published by Harvard University, .

Gomez-Luciano, C A, et al., ‘Consumers’ willingness to purchase three alternatives to meat proteins in the United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic’ (2019) 78 Food Quality and Preference e1.

Graf, T, ‘Historical Origins of Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming’ (2011) 9:6 Cell Stem Cell 517.

Grasso, A C, et al., ‘Older Consumers’ Readiness to Accept Alternative, More Sustainable Protein Sources in the European Union’ (2019) 11:8 Nutrients e1.

Grossi G, et al., ‘Livestock and climate change: impact of live-stock on climate and mitigation strategies’ (2019) 9:1 Animal Frontiers 69.

Hamdan M N, et al., ‘Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective’ (2018) 57 Journal of Religion and Health 2193.

Heidemann, M S, et al., ‘Uncoupling Meat from Animal Slaughter and Its Impacts on Human-Animal Relationships’ (2020) Frontiers in Psychology e1.

Ilea, R C, ‘Intensive Livestock Farming: Global Trends, Increased Environmental Concerns, and Ethical Solutions’ (2009) 22:2 Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 153.

Kadim, I T, et al., ‘Cultured meat from muscle stem cells: A review of challenges and prospects’ (2015) 14:2 Journal of Integrative Agriculture 222.

Knowles, T G, et al., ‘Leg Disorders in Broiler Chickens: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention’ (2008) 3:2 PLOS One e1545.

Kolkmann, A M, et al., ‘Serum-free media for the growth of primary bovine myoblasts’ (2020) 72 Cytotechnology 111.

Landers, T F, et al., ‘A Review of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Perspective, Policy, and Potential’ (2012) 127:1 Public Health Reports 4.

Lee, H J, et al., ‘Status of meat alternatives and their potential role in the future meat market – A review’ (2020) 33:10 Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1533.

Lynch, J, and R Pierrehumbert, ‘Climate Impacts of Cultured Meat and Beef Cattle’ (2019) Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems e1.

May, A, ‘In vitro meat: protein for twelve billion?’ (2012) MSc thesis submitted to the University of Otago.

Melzener, L, et al., ‘Cultured beef: from small biopsy to substantial quantity’ (2020) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture e1.

Miller, J, ‘In Vitro Meat: Power, Authenticity and Vegetarianism’ (2012) 10:4 Journal for Critical Animal Studies 41.

Miller, D J, ‘Sydney Ringer; physiology saline, calcium and the contraction of the heart’ (2004) 555:3 The Journal of Physiology 585.

Mohorcich, J, and J Reese, ‘Cell-cultured meat: Lessons from GMO adoption and resistance’ (2019) 143 Appetite e1.

Mok, W K, et al., ‘Technology innovations for food security in Singapore: A case study of future food systems for an increasingly resource-scarce world’ (2020) 102 Trends in Food Science & Technology 155.

Moritz M S M, et al., ‘Alternatives for large-scale production of cultured meat: A review’ (2015) 14:2 Journal of Integrative Agriculture 208.

Ong, S, et al., ‘Cell-based meat: Current ambiguities with nomenclature’ (2020) 102 Trends in Food Science & Technology 223.

Orzechowski, A, ‘Artificial meat? Feasible approach based on the experience from cell culture studies’ (2015) 14:2 Journal of Integrative Agriculture 217.

Osen, R, and U Schweiggert-Weisz, ‘High-Moisture Extrusion: Meat Analogues’ (2016) Reference Module in Food Sciences e1.

Painter, J, et al., ‘The coverage of cultivated meat in the US and UK traditional media, 2013-2019: drivers, sources, and competing narratives’ (2020) 162 Climatic Change e1.

Pimental, D, et al., ‘Reducing Energy Inputs in the US Food System’ (2008) 36:4 Human Ecology 459.

Rolland, N C M, et al., ‘The effect of information content on acceptance of cultured meat in a tasting context’ (2020) 15:4 PLOS One e1.

Sachs, A, and S Kettenmann, ‘A Burger by Any Other Name: Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities for Cell-Cultured Meat’ (2019) 15:2 SciTech Lawyer 18.

Salter, A M, ‘Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production’ (2017) 76:1 Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22.

Siegrist, M, et al., ‘Perceived naturalness and evoked disgust influence acceptance of cultured meat’ (2018) 139 Meat Science 213.

Stephens N, and Ellis M, ‘Cellular agriculture in the UK: a review’ (2020) 5:12 Wellcome Open Research e1.

Stephens N, et al., ‘Bringing cultured meat to market: Technical, socio-political, and regulatory challenges in cellular agriculture’ (2018) 78 Trends in Food Science & Technology 155.

Tiberius V, et al., ‘Setting the table for meat consumers: an international Delphi study on in vitro meat’ (2019) 3:10 npj Science of Food e1.

Tomiyama, A J, et al., ‘Bridging the gap between the science of cultured meat and public perceptions’ (2020) 104 Trends in Food Science & Technology 144.

Tuomisto, H L, and M J T D Mattos, ‘Environmental impacts of cultured meat production’ (2011) 45:14 Environmental Science & Technology 6117.

Valente, J d P S, et al., ‘First glimpse on attitudes of highly educated consumers towards cell-based meat and related issues in Brazil’ (2019) 14:8 PLOS One e1.

Van Boeckel T P, et al., ‘Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries’ (2019) 365:6459 Science 1266.

Van der Valk, J, et al., ‘Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media – Replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods’ (2010) 24:4 Toxicology In Vitro 1053.

Van der Weele, C, and J Tramper, ‘Cultured meat: every village its own factory?’ (2014) 32:6 Trends in Biotechnology 294.

Verbeke, W, et al., ‘Challenges and prospects for consumer acceptance of cultured meat’ (2015) 14:2 Journal of Integrative Agriculture 285.

Warner, R D, ‘Review: Analysis of the process and drivers for cellular meat production’ (2019) 13:12 Animal 3041.

Weinrich, R, et al., ‘Consumer acceptance of cultured meat in Germany’ (2020) 162 Meat Science e1.

Wild, F, ‘Manufacture of Meat Analogues through High Moisture Extrusion’ (2016) Reference Module in Food Science e1.

Wilks, M, et al., ‘Testing potential psychological predictors of attitudes towards cultured meat’ (2019) 136 Appetite 137.

Wilks, M, and C J C Phillips, ‘Attitudes to in vitro meat: A survey of potential consumers in the United States’ (2017) 12:2 PLOS One e1.

Zuidhof, M J, et al., ‘Growth, efficiency, and yield of commercial broilers from 1957, 1978, and 2005’ (2014) 93:12 Poultry Science 2970.

Policy Papers and Reports

Compassion in World Farming Trust, ‘The Welfare of Broiler Chickens in the European Union’ (2005).

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), ‘Global Risks of Infectious Animal Diseases’ (2005) 28 CAST Issue Paper.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, ‘Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options’ (2006).

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, ‘The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals’ (2018).

Froggart, A, and L Wellesley, ‘Meat Analogues: Considerations for the EU’ (2019) research paper by Chatham House.

Greene, J L, and S Angadjivand, ‘Regulation of Cell-Cultured Meat’ (2018) Congressional Research Service, .

Humane Society of the United States, ‘An HSUS Report: Human Health Implications of Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use in Animal Agriculture’ (2009).

Institute of Mechanical Engineers, ‘Global Food: Waste Not Want Not’ (2013).

Jagow, R B, ed., ‘Study of Life Support Systems for Space Missions Exceeding One Year in Duration. Phasa IA. Final Report. Volume I: Analysis of New Concepts’ (1967), report prepared for NASA.

PATH, ‘Cultured Proteins: An Analysis of the Policy and Regulatory Environment in Selected Geographies’ (2019).

RethinkX report by C Tubb, and T Seba, ‘Rethinking Food and Agriculture 2020-2030: The Second Domestication of Plants and Animals, the Disruption of the Cow, and the Collapse of Industrial Livestock Farming’ (2019).

Rorheim, A, et al., ‘Cultured Meat: An Ethical Alternative to Industrial Animal Farming’ (2016) policy paper by Sentience Politics.

United States Government Accountability Office, ‘Food Safety: FDA and USDA Could Strengthen Existing Efforts to Prepare for Oversight of Cell-Cultured Meat’ (2020) report to the Chairwoman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives.

World Health Organization, et al., ‘Report of the WHO/FAO/OIE joint consultation on emerging zoonotic diseases, in collaboration with the Health Council of the Netherlands’ (2004).

World Health Organization, et al., ‘The Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: From Advocacy to Action’ (2014).


Chapter 1

Woodward, Aylin, ‘Both the new coronavirus and SARS outbreaks likely started in Chinese ‘wet markets.’ New photos show what the markets looked like.’ Business Insider (26 February 2020),

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ‘Zoonotic Diseases’ (14 July 2017), .

Garrett, Laurie, ‘The Next Pandemic?’ Foreign Affairs (July/August 2005), .

Richburg, Keith B, ‘Bird Flu. SARS. China coronavirus. Is history repeating itself?’ Stat (27 January 2020), .

Live Science, ‘11 (sometimes) deadly diseases that hopped across species’ (6 March 2020), .

National Health Service, ‘Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)’ (14 June 2018), .

Mackenzie, Debora, ‘Many more people could still die from mad cow disease in the UK’ New Scientist (18 January 2017), .

Doucleff, Michaeleen, ‘For the Love of Pork: Antibiotic Use on Farms Skyrockets Worldwide’ NPR (20 March 2015), .

Larsen, Janet, ‘Meat Consumption in China Now Double That in the United States’ Earth Policy Institute (24 April 2012), .

McKenna, Maryn, ‘Farm Animals Are the Next Big Antibiotic Resistance Threat’ Wired (19 September 2019), .

World Health Organization, ‘Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain’ (November 2017), .

Dall, Chris, ‘FDA: Antibiotic use in food animals continues to rise’ Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (22 December 2016), .

Vegconomist, ‘Cell-Based Pioneers Aleph Farms Opens Visitor Centre and Gen-Z Program in Bid to Foster Transparency in Cultured Meat’ (4 February 2020), .

Everington, Keoni, ‘Last serpent shop shutters in Taipei’s Snake Alley’ Taiwan News (21 May 2018), .

Carrington, Damian, ‘Deadly diseases from wildlife thrive when nature is destroyed, study finds’ The Guardian (5 August 2020), .

Tollefson, Jeff, ‘Why deforestations and extinctions make pandemics more likely’ Nature (7 August 2020), .

Poinski, Megan, ‘Is coronavirus accelerating the growth of plant-based meat?’ Food Dive (13 October 2020), 

Chapter 2

Good Food Institute, ‘Plant-Based Market Overview’ (2020), .

MarketsandMarkets, ‘Plant-based Meat Market by Source (Soy, Wheat, Pea, Quinoa, Oats, Beans, Nuts), Product (Burger Patties, Sausages, Strips & Nuggets, Meatballs), Type (Pork, Beef, Chicken, Fish), Process, and Region – Global Forecast to 2025’ (May 2019), .

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, ‘Meat and Meat Products’ (15 March 2019), .

Justia, ‘Patents Assigned to Impossible Foods Inc’ (23 June 2020), .

Chartier, K, and Rabobank, ‘The European market for Meat Substitutes: Challenges and Opportunities’, presentation from the Plant Protein Conference (2019), .

Deloitte, ‘Plant-based alternatives: Driving industry M&A’ (2019), .

The Vegan Society, ‘Statistics’ (2020), .

Smithers, Rebecca, ‘Quorn to be the first major brand to introduce carbon labelling’ The Guardian (9th January 2020), .

DiMaio, Tara, ‘Is Red Seaweed the Next Big Thing in Plant-Based Protein?’ The Good Food Institute (4 July 2019), .

Watson, Elaine, ‘N’ice cream… minus the cows? Smitten teams with Perfect Day to make next-generation vegan ice cream’ FoodNavigator-USA (8 May 2020), .

PR Newswire, ‘Infant Formula Market Size to Reach USD 103.75 Billion by 2026’ (2 October 2019),–fortune-business-insights-300929520.html .

Kaiserman, Beth, ‘Plant-based Labeling: Tofurkey’s Lawsuit, PBFA Standards’, Nosh (12 December 2019), .

Eagle, Jenny, ‘“Clean meat” sees rapid growth as start-ups compete to bring first cultured meat product to market’ Food Navigator (26 November 2019), .

Purdy, Chase, ‘The idea for lab-grown market was born in a prisoner-of-war camp’ Quartz (24 September 2017), .

Swartz, Elliot, ‘Shared Folder: Cultivated Meat’ (2020), 

Verzijden, Karin, ‘Regulatory pathways for clean meat in the EU and the US – differences & analogies’ Axon Lawyers (15 March 2019), .

Wasley, Andrew, Madlen Davies, Callum Adams, and Josh Robbins, ‘Dirty Business: The Livestock Farms Polluting the UK’ The Bureau of Investigative Journalism (21 August 2017), .

Cox, David, ‘The planet’s prodigious poo problem’ The Guardian (25 March 2019), .

Roser, Max, and Hannah Ritchie, ‘Food Supply’ Our World in Data (2013), .

Friedrich, Bruce, ‘Dietary change may help us avert future pandemics’ New Scientist (15 July 2020), .

Carrington, Damian, ‘Microplastic particles now discoverable in human organs’ The Guardian (17 August 2020), .

Fortune Business Insights, ‘Infant Formula Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Type (Infant Milk, Follow-on-Milk, and Others), Distribution Channel (Hypermarkets/ Supermarkets, Pharmacy/Medical Stores, Specialty Stores, and Others), and Regional Forecast, 2020-2027’ (August 2020), .

Fountain, Henry, ‘A Lab-Grown Burger Gets a Taste Test’ The New York Times (5 August 2013),  

Chapter 3

Churchill, Winston, ‘Fifty Years Hence’ originally published in Strand Magazine (December 1931), .

Bashi, Zafer, Ryan McCullough, Liane Ong, and Miguel Ramirez, ‘Alternative proteins: the race for market share is on’ McKinsey & Company (16 August 2019), .

Kindy, Kimberly, ‘More than 200 meat plant workers in the U.S. have died of covid-19. Federal regulators just issued two modest fines.” Washington Post (13 September 2020), .

Good Food Institute, ‘Record $824 million invested in alternative protein companies in 2019, $930 million already invested in Q1 2020’ (13 May 2020), .

Grand View Research, ‘Pet Food Market Size Worth $113.08 Billion by 2025’ (September 2019), .

Grand View Research, ‘Pet Food Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Product (Dry Food, Wet/Canned Food, Nutritious Food, Snacks/Treats, Others), By Application (Dog, Cat, Others), .


Media (Lectures, Films, Podcasts)

Anthis, Jacy Reese, ‘The End of Animal Farming | TEDxUniversityofMississippi’ (14 March 2018), .

BBC Newsnight, ‘Would you eat meat grown in a lab? – BBC Newsnight’ (4 April 2018), .

Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret. Directed by Kip Andersen. Netflix, 2014. Film.

Daszak, Peter, ‘Peter Daszak at TEDMED 2010’ (13 January 2011), .

Earthlings. Directed by Shaun Monson. Nation Earth, 2005. Film.

Eating Animals. Directed by Christopher Dillon Quinn. Big Star Pictures, 2017. Film.

Food, Inc. Directed by Robert Kenner. Magnolia Pictures, 2008. Film.

Forgacs, Andras, ‘The bio-printing of leather and meat: Andras Forgacs at TEDxMarin 2013’ (7 November 2013), .

Friedrich, Bruce, ‘The next global agricultural revolution’ (19 June 2019), .

Friedrich, Bruce, ‘Meat Without Animals: The Future of Food | TEDxGateway’ (12 June 2020), .

Lagally, Christie, ‘The Manufacturing Challenges of Plant-Based Meat’ (6 October 2020), presentation at the Food Innovation Summit 2020, relevant section starts at 59:51, .

Live and Let Live. Directed by Marc Pierschel. Syndicado, 2013. Film.

Mutter, Alex, ‘Why lab-cultured meat might save the world | TEDxLFHS’ (20 May 2020), .

Okja. Directed by Bong Joon Ho. Netflix, 2017. Film.

Our Changing Climate, ‘Are plant-based meats actually sustainable? (Impossible Burger and Beyond Meat)’ (8 November 2019), .

Petrillo, Erica, ‘In vitro meat – the ethics, technology and politics behind it | TEDxUniMannheim’ (29 October 2019), .

Post, Mark, ‘Cultured Meat as a step towards Plant-Based Diets – Dr Mark Post’ (26 June 2018), .

Post, Mark, ‘Cultured beef for food-security and the environment: Mark Post at TEDxMaastricht’ (11 May 2014), .

Post, Mark, ‘Meet the new meat | TEDxHaarlem’ (20 June 2013), .

Quartz News, ‘Is cell-cultured meat ready for the mainstream?’ (1 November 2019), .

Saragosa, Manuela, BBC Business Daily, ‘Wet markets and the coronavirus’ BBC Business Daily (13 March 2020), .

Sekiyama, Kazuhide, ‘Changing the world with spider webs: Kazuhide Sekiyama at TEDxTokyo’ (12 May 2013), .

Shapiro, Paul, ‘Clean Meat: The Clean Energy of Food | TEDxSouthLakeTahoe’ (3 January 2018), .

Shirazi, Alex, Cultured Meat and Future Food Podcast, . Podcast.

Specht, Liz, ‘Liz Specht on The Future of Food, Alternative Meats, and Many Materials – What’s Now: San Francisco’ (21 February 2020), .

The Game Changers. Directed by Louie Psyhoyos. Refuel Productions, 2018. Film.

Wall Street Journal, ‘Tasting the World’s First Test-Tube Steak’ (11 December 2018), .   

Useful Organisations

Good Food Institute



New Harvest

California Plant Based

World Wildlife Fund


Green Queen

Elliot Swartz